The outstanding Hirving Lozano smashed home the Mexican victor in the 35th minute at Moscow's Luzhniki Stadium, leaving Manuel Neuer clutching at thin air on his return to the German goal after a nine-month injury absence.
Fans hold up letters spelling out Mexico during their team's match against Germany in Moscow, Russia, on Monday.
The Paris Saint-Germain star has been battling back from injury, having suffered a fractured metatarsal and sprained ankle in February, but the 26-year-old is expected to start on Sunday when five-time world champions Brazil face Group E rivals Switzerland in Rostov-on-Don.
Toni Kroos crashed a shot against the crossbar for Germany but they were never able to get back into the match as they slid to their first defeat in their opening game of a World Cup since 1982.
"I can't coach a team who complains".
But unlike in the last two Brazil friendlies earlier this month, when he scored goals and inspired his team to victory, he looked out of sorts versus the Swiss and just not up for it.
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Goalie Alisson, midfielders Casemiro and Philippe Countinho and forward Neymar were all on the pitch at the 2009 Federation Internationale de Football Association U-17 World Cup group match when Brazil took on Switzerland.
Marquez played for Barcelona between 2003 and 2010 and plans to retire after the FIFA World Cup.
For Philippe Coutinho curling the ball from outside the area into the top corner is as frequent as me writing an article that is barely readable or interesting and even during the World Cup we're both pulling off our usual tricks.
Germany were exposed again and again by Mexico's counter-attacking, and if they had been more accurate with their final pass then they would not have had to endure the tense finale as the holders threw everything forward.
Willian heads into World Cup in Russian Federation having scored 13 goals and provided 12 assists for Chelsea last season, helping the Blues to the FA Cup. "We will make it to the next round". The average age isn't too high, " Loew said.
The loss leaves the Germans in a precarious position, chasing the Mexicans in a Group F that also includes Sweden and South Korea.
"We are now under pressure, we have to get six points from the next games", he said.